1b. What is stock valuation?
       Business valuation?

pi-egg.gif  Price vs. valuation

When a firm is listed in a stock market, it has a market price. So everybody knows

what it is worth.

What an equity is worth is its price, obviously.

Thus, why the need to do a stock valuation if we know the stock price?
Can the value differ from the price?

In absolute, no, but in my mind or in your mind, yes, it can be different. This is

if you buy a stock, it is that you think it can reach an higher price, if no why

if you sell it, it is that, either you need the money to buy a new bread toaster
     or a Ferrari, or you think it can reach a lower price

So you need a stock valuation that give such potential prices.

Valuing a stock is to estimate
its potential price(s). Simple, Isn't it ?

And of course many businesses are not listed in a stock market (private corporations).

Here, sorry, we have no market price on the window, you have to find another value
Stock valuation methods are useful for such a business valuation.

The only extra things to take into account are:

* the lack of liquidity of the stock, it could lead to apply a discount to the estimated

* or in the contrary the rarity, that could lead to apply a premium.

  Potential price vs. fair value,
    Economic vs. market-based value

Mind you, in this approach, valuation is about.

* Potential price(s), a practical concept,

* Not "fair price / fair value", a theoretical concept, which is based only on
 stock's economic fundamentals (*)

(*) or on some philosophic-political norms, for example in the case of the
theory of value, but that is another story.

Of course, fundamental calculations might help, but are not sufficient to assess

potential prices,which depend of stock market players' attitudes.

We can talk here of the difference between:

*"Intrinsic" (= economic) value

* "Extrinsic" (= belonging to the stock market) value.

This shows the need for market-based valuation (aka relative valuation) to
fundamental valuation methods, in order to take into account
those market elements.

  Valuation cannot give only one potential price

You have - at least - two potential prices for a given asset :

the lowest potential price

and the highest potential price.

This is oversimplifying things, you might say.

You would be right, as talking about "extreme" potential prices means there is a myriad
other potential ones between those two extremes.

So valuing a stock, as I see it, is to determine a bracket of potential prices.

Among them the so-called "fair price", might be - or might not be -
the pivot of the range.

Beware of "range estimate aversion"

Deciders often have a "range estimate aversion".

They often determine a single precise number, instead of a range of values that would allow
to see the various possibilities and risks among which to build a strategy.

They focus on what they expect has the most chance to happen and forget to imagine other

Also they expect from experts and analysts to be given such a precise number instead of a
choiceof scenarios.

To reduce an estimate to one number is a typical framing (see that word) that gives
the deciders an illusion of certainty and waters down their appreciation of risk.

Also, if things turn bad, it allows them to attribute the responsibility on the
expert, forgetting that the role of the decider is to make its choice, not obey

  How to find this potential price range

Valuation criteria include fundamental ones and behavioral ones

1) Normally fundamentals should play a part.

In other words, the first element of the bracket would be various economic
about the predictable results of the firm.

Of course there is some subjectivity in economic predictions.

And some subjectivity also in the choice of the calculation methods to deduct a
financial value from economic predictions

In theory, economic valuation should use discounting methods, but it as to be

chosen to what expected data it will be applied (earnings, cash earnings, dividend,
rents, resale values...) and what discounting return rate could be used

Yes, valuations are always subjective to some degree. Better admit it!

However refined is the valuation technique, it only gives what we consider - by using
our tools, information, and projections - could / should be the "value" of the stock.

2) The second element to assess the bracket would be behavioral.

What would be the attitude and behavior of investors towards the stock?

What are the economic scenarios and valuations methods investors would

What cognitive biases might interfere?

pi-arrig.gif And what emotional value (image) they give to the stock, which would add
    a love bonus
or deduct a dislike penalty to their valuation?

Yes, subjectivity at power 2!

That financial affect (market sentiment) vary also inside a bracket, from highly bullish to
highly bearish, from hatred to adoration.

Contrarians would say here that the more bearish or bullish the sentiment, the
nearer we are to a trend inversion in the opposite direction.

But that is another story and let us go back to stock valuation.

3)The combined elements

Is there a behavioral stock valuation model, built on the idea of assessing potential
price brackets with a dual set of criteria, fundamental + behavioral?

The only one that exists to my knowledge, is the one presented in this site. Its main
innovation is the"stock image coefficient".

One of the main purposes of this site is to show you how this method works,
     theoretically and practically. And, to make it even more practical, it gives you 

 access to the related  

  From valuation to price objective

The next step after doing a valuation, or better, a valuation range, is obviously to
compare it with the market price.

We see then if the stock looks expensive (near the upper price potential) or cheap
(near the lower price potential).

Also it is important to spot if the market is in a downtrend or an uptrend.

To detect this, it might help you to have a look at the basics of image evolutions

All this helps to determine price objectives for the stock.

=> This site has a chapter on portfolio management, even if it is not its main


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